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3D ultrasonic imaging probes

1 January 2001

Implementation of 3D capabilities on ultrasonic imaging systems tantalizingly proves the high interest for this diagnosing modality. However, to become a clinical tool, 3D ultrasound has to spend further technological efforts in acquisition performance and probe size to deliver on the fly, quality volumetric images as well as current functionalities.

Active control of the spatial MRI phase distribution with optimal control theory

7 November 2019

This paper investigates the use of Optimal Control (OC) theory to design Radio-Frequency (RF) pulses that actively control the spatial distribution of the MRI magnetization phase. The RF pulses are generated through the application of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle and optimized so that the resulting transverse magnetization reproduces various non-trivial and spatial phase patterns. Two different phase patterns are defined and the resulting optimal pulses are tested both numerically with the ODIN MRI simulator and experimentally with an agar gel phantom on a 4.7 T small-animal MR scanner. Phase images obtained in simulations and experiments are both consistent with the defined phase patterns. A practical application of phase control with OC-designed pulses is also presented, with the generation of RF pulses adapted for a Magnetic Resonance Elastography experiment. This study demonstrates the possibility to use OC-designed RF pulses to encode information in the magnetization phase and could have applications in MRI sequences using phase images.

A bistable piezoelectric harvester for wideband mechanical frequency excitation

19 June 2023

The developments of autonomous systems such as for self health monitoring, embedded systems are increasingly used in industrial applications. The energy supply is a key point for the development of such systems. Solutions based on battery have limited life time and the power supplies through wires aren’t always appropriate and easy to install. Furthermore, the battery recycling is complex and an expensive process. The researches on power supply through harvesting systems are increasing in the same way the autonomous systems.

Cardiolock: an Active Cardiac Stabilizer

19 June 2023

Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) is still today a technically difficult procedure. In fact, the mechanical stabilizers used to locally suppress the heart excursion have been demonstrated to exhibit significant residual motion. We therefore propose a novel active stabilizer which is able to compensate for this residual motion. The interaction between the heart and a mechanical stabilizer is first assessed in vivo on an animal model. Then, the principle of active stabilization, based on the high speed vision-based control of a compliant mechanism, is presented. In vivo experimental results are given using a prototype which structure is compatible with a minimally invasive approach.

Constant gradient elastography with optimal control RF pulses

7 November 2019

This article presents a new motion encoding strategy to perform magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). Instead of using standard motion encoding gradients, a tailored RF pulse is designed to simultaneously perform selective excitation and motion encoding in presence of a constant gradient. The RF pulse is designed with a numerical optimal control algorithm, in order to obtain a magnetization phase distribution that depends on the displacement characteristics inside each voxel. As a consequence, no postexcitation encoding gradients are required. This offers numerous advantages, such as reducing eddy current artifacts, and relaxing the constraint on the gradients maximum switch rate. It also allows to perform MRE with ultra-short TE acquisition schemes, which limits T2 decay and optimizes signal-to-noise ratio. The pulse design strategy is developed and analytically analyzed to clarify the encoding mechanism. Finally, simulations, phantom and ex vivo experiments show that phase-to-noise ratios are improved when compared to standard MRE encoding strategies.

Fast tomoelastography of the mouse brain by multifrequency single shot MR elastography

7 November 2019

To introduce in vivo multifrequency single-shot magnetic resonance elastography for full-FOV stiffness mapping of the mouse brain and to compare in vivo stiffness of neural tissues with different white-to-gray matter ratios. Brain mechanical properties influence many vital neurological functions including brain development, metabolism, and tissue repair. However, studying brain mechanical properties in a noninvasive fashion encounters a number of challenges including the fact that the brain is protected by the skull as well as the heterogeneous and complex ge